In a nutshell
The neuron is a nerve cell and is the fundamental building block of the nervous system. Neurons are responsible for transmitting information through electrical and chemical signals within the nervous system.
Components of a neuron
- Soma: The cell body that contains the nucleus and other essential organelles that support the neuron’s functions.
- Dendrites: Branching extensions that serve as receivers, collecting signals from other neurons or sensory receptors.
- Axon: Long, slender extensions that transmits electrical impulses (action potentials) away from the cell body and to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
How do neurons communicate with each other?